sobre o tema Ethics/Aesthetics decorreu entre o dia 7 e 10 de Setembro a conferência da ECLAS (European Council of Landscape Architecture Schools) em Sheffield, Reino Unido
Nesta Conferência estiveram presentes, representantes da Universidade do Porto...

diponibilizo aqui os temas e conteudos das apresentações
alguns representantes vindos do Porto estiveram em visita nos Stowe Landscape gardens

A comparative analysis between ethic and aesthetic in Medieval treatises and
descriptions on garden design
Ricardo Gomes

In the pre-modern world, the Silk Road crossed territories of a wide
cultural diversity and was the most significant link between them. Prior
to the process of European settlement in China and Japan, the garden
cultures of the Western and Eastern civilizations remained practically
isolated from each other. The dichotomy between the morphological
and philosophical evolution in Oriental and Occidental garden design
has been one of the milestones in garden history and its study is crucial
to understand garden art in past and present times.
The aim of this work is to compare the ethic and aesthetic thoughts
expressed in five of the most important written documents on garden
art from Japanas Heian period to Medieval Europe, when cultural
exchanges West/East were still extremely difficult. Two of these pieces
are the descriptions of ambassador Clavijo and Marco Polo concerning
the gardens of the Timurid and Yuan Empire courts. The other three
are treatises, namely: Ruralium Commodorum Opus, Pietro de'
Crescenzias 13th century treatise on rural economy; Geoponica, the
10th century byzantine compendium and Sakuteiki, the Japanese 11th
century manual on garden making.
East, West, North, South- Cross Cultures
In this study Ethic is understood as the moral view of what was seen as
right or wrong in a garden, from a social, economical and ecological
point of view and Aesthetic as the judgment of what was regarded as
beautiful or unpleasant from a sensorial perspective.
The referred documents were analyzed, and the key statements in
ethics and aesthetics, for each one, were classified as either negative or
positive. Through a comparative analysis, the similarities and
differences between these statements were assessed.
The divergence in the expressed views is much more significant in
Aesthetic than in Ethic statements. Size, luxury, wealth and power are
often considered positive but there is a significant contrast about the
aesthetical components of garden design, such as straight lines or
symmetry, that were evaluated as extremely desirable or absolutely
In the context of a comprehensive study on garden history, this
discussion can provide a step towards a better understanding of the
evolution of gardens in different cultures.

The visual aesthetics of urban biodiversity: A trial study in three small parks in
Porto, Portugal
Paulo Farinha Marques, José M. Lameiras, Cláudia Fernandes, Sara Silva

Urban biodiversity has an intrinsic value as it sustains fundamental
ecologic processes that have economic, recreational and aesthetic
relevance to human societies. Most studies on urban biodiversity are
restricted to ecological assessment overlooking aesthetic qualities.
The extreme anthropogenic environment of urban areas allows minor
access to natural aesthetics. rContact with naturea is being
progressively acknowledged as highly beneficial to human health and
well-being with increasing amount of data sustaining that assumption
An attempt to relate biodiversity and aesthetics is not a
straightforward process, as high biodiversity may not be automatically
associated to high aesthetic value and vice-versa. But within the urban context, where most natural / green spaces are the result of human design and maintenance it seems
relevant to insist on addressing this subject.
In urban green spaces planting compositions display a variety of habitat
opportunities for wildlife with different aesthetic interest and value. It
seems however that some types of planting compositions are
Vegetation and Water - Public Attitudes to Biodiversity in Design
simultaneously rich in species and aesthetically pleasing
In order to contribute to this subject a pilot study was conducted on
three small public parks in the city of Porto.
An assessment was made, aiming at finding a relation between spatial
character of green spaces (vegetation structure, composition and
distribution), species richness and visual aesthetic quality. Results
suggest a relation between certain planting design strategies and
higher levels of biodiversity. Variety in vegetation structure and
composition seems to have a positive effect both on biodiversity and
on visual aesthetic quality. Results are discussed in order to achieve
design guidelines for biodiversity stimulation in urban green spaces.
Studies on urban biodiversity should include more reflection on the
aesthetic quality of the urban green structure considering the
proximity, access and direct use of the human beings. These outputs
are relevant to discuss and develop the design strategies and principles
that meet the targets of a multipurpose urban green structure with
optimized biodiversity content.

The rehabilitation of Oporto public residential spaces through public space
Isabel Martinho da Silva, Paulo Marques, Ana Loureiro

Most of Porto public residential spaces are residual spaces and lack
function, spatial design and clear identity. This occurs both in social
housing quarters and in low to upper middle-class residential quarters.
The potential of residential public spaces is not fully used due
essentially to poor design and they work more like waste land or
nameless spaces between buildings. The consequent lack of
identification with these public spaces, results in their
misappropriation, as they are neither used nor acknowledged,
configuring a situation of \non-places].
This research aims at developing an intervention strategy for Porto
public residential spaces, by designing opportunities to inhabit, to
socialize, and to recreate, creating places of identification and
belonging in correspondence with the quarteras social character.
The methodology includes: field surveys, analysis and interpretation of
data, synthesis and a design proposal. Analysis and interpretation of
data collected during field surveys allows the identification of existing
open space typologies and associated activities. Further analysis and
reflection leads to the definition of a spatial conceptual model which
synthesises the main character zones and associated functions,
presenting the general intervention guidelines for the different spaces.
The goals are the creation of opportunities for an improved spatial
design, providing a higher diversity of public spaces, organizing the
existing ones and promoting an overall sense of place.
The study area includes four social housing quarters and two middle
class quarters. Two of the social housing quarters went through a
recent rehabilitation process but show no significant improvements so
far as open spaces are concerned.
Apart from the development of the conceptual model described above,
this study leads to an important conclusion: poor public residential
spaces are not correlated with household value or resident social level,
they are just a consequence of bad design. It also allow us to observe
that the rehabilitation undertaken in two social housing quarters
resulted in some aesthetic improvement but had no impact in the
functional and social issues that this research aims to address, which
reinforces the need for a new design paradigm for Oporto public
residential spaces.

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